欢迎光临 我们一直在努力

曼德拉的一生英语作文,一片关于曼德拉的英语作文80字含翻译

日期:来源:曼德拉的一生英语作文收集编辑:自己开店创业做什么

一片关于曼德拉的英语作文80字含翻译

Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (18 July 1918 – 5 December 2013) was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, politician and served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. Mandela served 27 years in prison.He was South Africa's first black chief executive, and the first elected in a fully representative democratic election. His governmentfocused on dismantling the legacy of apartheid through tackling institutionalised racism, poverty and inequality, and fostering racial reconciliation.

纳尔逊曼德拉生于1918年7月18日,逝世于2013年12月5日。他是伟大的革命家,政治家。从1994年到1999年任南非总统。他的监狱生涯长达27年。他是南非首位黑人领袖,也是第一位通过完全民主选举产生的领导人。他带领的政府致力于解决种族歧视,贫穷和不平等待遇等问题。

Mandela was a controversial figure for much of his life. He has received more than 250 honours, including the 1993 Nobel Peace Prize. He is held in deep respect within South Africa, where he is often referred to by his Xhosa clan name, Madiba, or as Tata ("Father"); he is often described as the "Father of the Nation".

曼德拉自始至终都是一个有争议的人物。他获得了250多项荣誉,其中包括1930年的诺贝尔和平奖。他在南非人民的心中举足轻重,他被视为国父。

关于曼德拉的英语作文 带翻译 高一水平

On 5th, December, 2013, the South Africa’s former President and the Nobel winner Nelson R. Mandela had passed away. Suddenly, the whole world was in deep mourning for this great man. In his extraordinary life, he had made marvelous contribution to his country, also to this world.

2013年12月5日,南非前总统和诺贝尔奖获得者尼尔森. R.曼德拉逝世。突然之间,整个世界都在沉痛悼念这位伟大的人物。在他毫不平凡的一生中,他对他的国家,乃至整个世界都做出了巨大的贡献。

Born in a small village in South Africa, Mandela was one of the 13 children of a tribe chief. Unlike his father, he didn’t want to use his social status to oppress his people. Deep in his heart, he wanted to start the national liberation movement, and help the black people to live freely. In 1944, Mandela was actively involved in different kinds of campaign, aimed to fight for the rights for the majority blacks without violence resistance in the country. In 1961, he became the anti-apartheid leader, and won the honor of all the black people. However, Mandela was arrested for treason but later was acquitted. In 1962, the South Africa government was arrest him for the same excuse and he started his prison life for 27 years. But the hard life in prison never changed his faith that he would build an equal, free new Africa. He is such a great fighter that he finally released from prison. He believed that the world would become peace and equal. There is no racial discrimination.

曼德拉出生在一个南非的小山村,是一个部落酋长的儿子。他有13个兄弟姐们。不像他的父亲,他不想用自己的社会地位去压迫他的人民。在他内心深处,他想要发起全国解放运动,帮助黑人自由生活。在1944年,曼德拉开始参加各种非暴力性解放运动,目的就是为了帮助黑人争取权利。在1961年,他成为了反对宗族隔离的领袖,并获得了全体黑人的尊敬。然而,曼德拉以叛国罪被捉捕,随后被无罪释放。在1962年,南非政府以同样的罪名正式逮捕他,然后他开始了长达29年的牢狱生活。但艰辛的牢狱生活并没有改变他的信念——建造一个平等、自由的新南非。他是个如此英勇的斗士,最终重获自由。他相信这个世界会得更和平更平等,没有种族歧视。

Just like he used to say, no one is born hating another person because of the color of his skin, or his background, or his religion. People must learn to hate, if they can learn to hate, they can be taught to love, for love comes more naturally to the human heart than its opposite.

就像他曾说过的那样:“没有人生来就会因为皮肤颜色、出身背景或宗教信仰而仇恨他人,恨都是学来的。而如果他们可以学会恨,那么他们同样也可以学会爱,因为爱比恨会更自然地走进人类的内心。”

Rest In Peace,Mandela.

安息吧,曼德拉。

望采纳哇咔咔~

今日总结曼德拉的一生英语作文

真的,我可以证实,我记得央视又一次放到曼德拉的时候放了光辉岁月,并讲述了这件事情

追问:

哪个台的啊?

回答:

央视的,不是晚上有个新闻吗,好多个台都放一样的那个

追问:

那曼德拉提到家驹吗?

回答:

没有,当时曼德拉要求翻译歌词,当得知大意后,感动的哭了

曼德拉的传奇一生

  纳尔逊·罗利赫拉赫拉·曼德拉( Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela )1918年7月18日出生于南非特兰斯凯一个大酋长家庭,先后获南非大学文学士和威特沃特斯兰德大学律师资格,当过律师。曼德拉自幼性格刚强,崇敬民族英雄。他是家中长子而被指定为酋长继承人。但他表示:“决不愿以酋长身份统治一个受压迫的部族”,而要“以一个战士的名义投身于民族解放事业”。他毅然走上了追求民族解放的道路。1944年他参加南非非洲人国民大会(简称非国大)。1948年当选为非国大青年联盟全国书记,1950年任非国大青年联盟全国主席。1952年先后任非国大执委、德兰士瓦省主席、全国副主席。同年年底,他成功地组织并领导了“蔑视不公正法令运动”,赢得了全体黑人的尊敬。为此,南非当局曾两次发出不准他参加公众集会的禁令。

  1961年6月曼德拉创建非国大军事组织“民族之矛”,任总司令。1962年8月,曼德拉被捕入狱,当时他年仅43岁,南非政府以政治煽动和非法越境罪判处他5年监禁。1964年6月,他又被指控犯有以阴谋颠覆罪而改判为无期徒刑,从此开始了漫长的铁窗生涯,在狱中长达27个春秋,他备受迫害和折磨,但始终坚贞不屈。1990年2月11日,南非当局在国内外舆论压力下,被迫宣布无条件释放曼德拉。同年3月,他被非国大全国执委任命为副主席、代行主席职务,1991年7月当选为主席。1994年4月,非国大在南非首次不分种族的大选中获胜。同年5月,曼德拉成为南非第一位黑人总统。1997年12月,曼德拉辞去非国大主席一职,并表示不再参加1999年6月的总统竞选。1999年6月正式去职。

  主要著作有:《走向自由之路不会平坦》、《斗争就是生活》、《争取世界自由宣言》、自传《自由路漫漫》。

  1991年联合国教科文组织授予曼德拉“乌弗埃-博瓦尼争取和平奖”。1993年10月,诺贝尔和平委员会授予他诺贝尔和平奖,以表彰他为废除南非种族歧视政策所作出的贡献。同年他还与当时的南非总统德克勒克一起被授予美国费城自由勋章。1998年9月曼德拉访美,获美国“国会金奖”,成为第一个获得美国这一最高奖项的非洲人。2000年8月被南部非洲发展共同体授予“卡马”勋章,以表彰他在领导南非人民争取自由的长期斗争中,在实现新旧南非的和平过渡阶段,以及担任南共体主席期间做出的杰出贡献。

  1992年曼德拉与温妮分居,1996年3月19日,法院判定曼德拉与温妮离婚。现任妻子格拉萨·马谢尔(Graca Machel)是莫桑比克前总统萨莫拉的遗孀,1998年7月18日与曼德拉结婚。

  1992年10月首次访华,5日被北京大学授予名誉法学博士学位。1999年5月,曼德拉总统应邀访华,他是首位访华的南非国家元首。

关于推荐曼德拉获得诺贝尔和平奖的英语作文

今天,就让我来介绍吧!春天,小兴安岭的小溪边,有正长嫩叶柳姑娘,有在打蝴蝶结的柏松先生,还有在溪边散步的小鹿一家呢!还有许多树木抽出了新的枝条,长出了嫩绿的叶子,对了,山上的雪都融化了,雪水汇成小溪,淙淙的往下流,真是太有意思了,美丽的小兴安岭作文。 夏天,树木长的密密层层的,挡住了人们的视线,遮住了蓝蓝的天空,当太阳出来时,千万缕的金光照在工人宿舍门前的草地上,草地上开着各色的花儿,真像一个美丽的大花坛,真是太美丽了!秋天,森林向人们献出了酸甜可口的山葡萄,鲜嫩的木耳,还有人参等名贵药材,在这个季节里,不紧紧是吃的多,美丽的东西也很多,比如,秋风吹来,树叶慢慢飘下来像蝴蝶在半空中飞舞,中学生作文

《光辉岁月》英语作文简介

Nelson Mandela spent 27 years in jail, imprisoned by the white minority government to serve his efforts to fight the injustice of apartheid. By the time he gained his freedom in 1990, he'd captured the imagination of the people around the world. His greatest achievement was to then take South Africa into a new era without the widespread bloodshed that had been feared. In a BBC interview Mr Mandela explained how he was able to be so magnanimous. "If we don't forgive them then that feeling of bitterness and revenge will be there and we are saying, 'let us forget the past, let's concern ourselves with the present and the future', but to say the atrocities of the past will never be allowed to happen again." Our former southern Africa correspondent Mike Wooldridge who was there to see Nelson Mandela's release looks back at a remarkable life. "I, Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, do hereby swear to be faithful to the Republic of South Africa."为了在白人执政政府下和不公平的种族隔离制度斗争,纳尔逊�6�1曼德拉在监狱中度过27载岁月。而当他在1990年重获自由,他得到了全世界的关注。他最大的成就是当时在没有造成大规模流血的情况下带领南非进入了一个新时代。在一次BBC的采访中,曼德拉先生解释了为什么他能那样的宽宏大量。 “如果我们不原谅他们,那怨恨和复仇将一直在那里。我们会说,‘让我们忘记过去,让我们更关注现在和将来’,但是我们也要说暴行决不允许再次发生。” 我们的前任南非记者Mike Wooldridge曾在那里见证了纳尔逊�6�1曼德拉出狱,他将带我们回顾曼德拉传奇的一生。 “我,纳尔逊�6�1曼德拉,特此发誓效忠于南非共和国。”

曼德拉的英文名言

http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/n/nelson_mandela.html

共两页。

另见英文维基语录

There are many people who feel that it is useless and futile for us to continue talking peace and non-violence — against a government whose only reply is savage attacks on an unarmed and defenceless people. And I think the time has come for us to consider, in the light of our experiences at this day at home, whether the methods which we have applied so far are adequate.

Interview (1961)

Only free men can negotiate; prisoners cannot enter into contracts. Your freedom and mine cannot be separated.

Refusing to bargain for freedom after 21 years in prison, as quoted in TIME (25 February 1985)

I stand here before you not as a prophet but as a humble servant of you, the people. Your tireless and heroic sacrifices have made it possible for me to be here today. I therefore place the remaining years of my life in your hands.

Speech on the day of his release, Cape Town (11 February 1990)

I remember we adjourned for lunch and a friendly Afrikaner warder asked me the question, "Mandela, what do you think is going to happen to you in this case?" I said to him, "Agh, they are going to hang us." Now, I was really expecting some word of encouragement from him. And I thought he was going to say, "Agh man, that can never happen." But he became serious and then he said, "I think you are right, they are going to hang you."

Interview segment on All Things Considered (NPR) broadcast (27 April 2004)

Let's hope that Ken Osterbroek will be the last person to die.

Spoken shortly after Inkatha announced that they would participate in the 1994 elections. (The Bang-Bang Club p. 168)

The UN took a strong stand against apartheid; and over the years, an international consensus was built, which helped to bring an end to this iniquitous system. But we know too well that our freedom is incomplete without the freedom of the Palestinians.

Address at The International Day of Solidarity with the Palestinian People[1]

[edit] First court statement (1962)

Statement on charges of inciting persons to strike illegally, and of leaving the country without a valid passport.

In its proper meaning equality before the law means the right to participate in the making of the laws by which one is governed, a constitution which guarantees democratic rights to all sections of the population, the right to approach the court for protection or relief in the case of the violation of rights guaranteed in the constitution, and the right to take part in the administration of justice as judges, magistrates, attorneys-general, law advisers and similar positions.

In the absence of these safeguards the phrase 'equality before the law', in so far as it is intended to apply to us, is meaningless and misleading. All the rights and privileges to which I have referred are monopolised by whites, and we enjoy none of them. The white man makes all the laws, he drags us before his courts and accuses us, and he sits in judgement over us.

It is fit and proper to raise the question sharply, what is this rigid colour-bar in the administration of justice? Why is it that in this courtroom I face a white magistrate, am confronted by a white prosecutor, and escorted into the dock by a white orderly? Can anyone honestly and seriously suggest that in this type of atmosphere the scales of justice are evenly balanced?

Why is it that no African in the history of this country has ever had the honour of being tried by his own kith and kin, by his own flesh and blood?

I will tell Your Worship why: the real purpose of this rigid colour-bar is to ensure that the justice dispensed by the courts should conform to the policy of the country, however much that policy might be in conflict with the norms of justice accepted in judiciaries throughout the civilised world.

I hate race discrimination most intensely and in all its manifestations. I have fought it all during my life; I fight it now, and will do so until the end of my days. Even although I now happen to be tried by one whose opinion I hold in high esteem, I detest most violently the set-up that surrounds me here. It makes me feel that I am a black man in a white man's court. This should not be.

[edit] I am Prepared to Die (1964)

Statement in the Rivonia Trial, Pretoria Supreme Court (20 April 1964)

I must deal immediately and at some length with the question of violence. Some of the things so far told to the Court are true and some are untrue. I do not, however, deny that I planned sabotage. I did not plan it in a spirit of recklessness, nor because I have any love of violence. I planned it as a result of a calm and sober assessment of the political situation that had arisen after many years of tyranny, exploitation, and oppression of my people by the Whites.

I have already mentioned that I was one of the persons who helped to form Umkhonto. I, and the others who started the organization, did so for two reasons. Firstly, we believed that as a result of Government policy, violence by the African people had become inevitable, and that unless responsible leadership was given to canalize and control the feelings of our people, there would be outbreaks of terrorism which would produce an intensity of bitterness and hostility between the various races of this country which is not produced even by war. Secondly, we felt that without violence there would be no way open to the African people to succeed in their struggle against the principle of white supremacy. All lawful modes of expressing opposition to this principle had been closed by legislation, and we were placed in a position in which we had either to accept a permanent state of inferiority, or to defy the Government. We chose to defy the law. We first broke the law in a way which avoided any recourse to violence; when this form was legislated against, and then the Government resorted to a show of force to crush opposition to its policies, only then did we decide to answer violence with violence.

But the violence which we chose to adopt was not terrorism. We who formed Umkhonto were all members of the African National Congress, and had behind us the ANC tradition of non-violence and negotiation as a means of solving political disputes. We believe that South Africa belongs to all the people who live in it, and not to one group, be it black or white. We did not want an interracial war, and tried to avoid it to the last minute. If the Court is in doubt about this, it will be seen that the whole history of our organization bears out what I have said, and what I will subsequently say, when I describe the tactics which Umkhonto decided to adopt.

During my lifetime I have dedicated myself to this struggle of the African people. I have fought against white domination, and I have fought against black domination. I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons will live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. It is an ideal which I hope to live for. But, my lord, if needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die.

The ANC has never at any period of its history advocated a revolutionary change in the economic structure of the country, nor has it, to the best of my recollection, ever condemned capitalist society.

[edit] Our March to Freedom is Irreversible (1990)

Friends, Comrades and fellow South Africans. I greet you all in the name of peace, democracy and freedom for all. I stand here before you not as a prophet but as a humble servant of you, the people. Your tireless and heroic sacrifices have made it possible for me to be here today. I therefore place the remaining years of my life in your hands.

The majority of South Africans, black and white, recognize that apartheid has no future. It has to be ended by our own decisive mass action in order to build peace and security. The mass campaign of defiance and other actions of our organization and people can only culminate in the establishment of democracy

There must be an end to white monopoly on political power, and a fundamental restructuring of our political and economic systems to ensure that the inequalities of apartheid are addressed and our society thoroughly democratized.

Our march to freedom is irreversible. We must not allow fear to stand in our way. Universal suffrage on a common voters' roll in a united, democratic and non-racial South Africa is the only way to peace and racial harmony.

[edit] Nobel Prize acceptance speech (1993)

Nobel Peace Prize Acceptance Address(10 December 1993)

We speak here of the challenge of the dichotomies of war and peace, violence and non-violence, racism and human dignity, oppression and repression and liberty and human rights, poverty and freedom from want.

We stand here today as nothing more than a representative of the millions of our people who dared to rise up against a social system whose very essence is war, violence, racism, oppression, repression and the impoverishment of an entire people.

I am also here today as a representative of the millions of people across the globe, the anti-apartheid movement, the governments and organisations that joined with us, not to fight against South Africa as a country or any of its peoples, but to oppose an inhuman system and sue for a speedy end to the apartheid crime against humanity.

These countless human beings, both inside and outside our country, had the nobility of spirit to stand in the path of tyranny and injustice, without seeking selfish gain. They recognised that an injury to one is an injury to all and therefore acted together in defense of justice and a common human decency.

Because of their courage and persistence for many years, we can, today, even set the dates when all humanity will join together to celebrate one of the outstanding human victories of our century.

When that moment comes, we shall, together, rejoice in a common victory over racism, apartheid and white minority rule.

That triumph will finally bring to a close a history of five hundred years of African colonisation that began with the establishment of the Portuguese empire.

Thus, it will mark a great step forward in history and also serve as a common pledge of the peoples of the world to fight racism, wherever it occurs and whatever guise it assumes.

In front of this distinguished audience, we commit the new South Africa to the relentless pursuit of the purposes defined in the World Declaration on the Survival, Protection and Development of Children.

The reward of which we have spoken will and must also be measured by the happiness and welfare of the mothers and fathers of these children, who must walk the earth without fear of being robbed, killed for political or material profit, or spat upon because they are beggars.

They too must be relieved of the heavy burden of despair which they carry in their hearts, born of hunger, homelessness and unemployment.

The value of that gift to all who have suffered will and must be measured by the happiness and welfare of all the people of our country, who will have torn down the inhuman walls that divide them.

These great masses will have turned their backs on the grave insult to human dignity which described some as masters and others as servants, and transformed each into a predator whose survival depended on the destruction of the other.

The value of our shared reward will and must be measured by the joyful peace which will triumph, because the common humanity that bonds both black and white into one human race, will have said to each one of us that we shall all live like the children of paradise.

Thus shall we live, because we will have created a society which recognises that all people are born equal, with each entitled in equal measure to life, liberty, prosperity, human rights and good governance.

Such a society should never allow again that there should be prisoners of conscience nor that any person's human right should be violated.

In relation to these matters, we appeal to those who govern Burma that they release our fellow Nobel Peace Prize laureate, Aung San Suu Kyi, and engage her and those she represents in serious dialogue, for the benefit of all the people of Burma.

We pray that those who have the power to do so will, without further delay, permit that she uses her talents and energies for the greater good of the people of her country and humanity as a whole.

Far from the rough and tumble of the politics of our own country. I would like to take this opportunity to join the Norwegian Nobel Committee and pay tribute to my joint laureate. Mr. F.W. de Klerk.

He had the courage to admit that a terrible wrong had been done to our country and people through the imposition of the system of apartheid.

He had the foresight to understand and accept that all the people of South Africa must through negotiations and as equal participants in the process, together determine what they want to make of their future.

We live with the hope that as she battles to remake herself, South Africa, will be like a microcosm of the new world that is striving to be born.

This must be a world of democracy and respect for human rights, a world freed from the horrors of poverty, hunger, deprivation and ignorance, relieved of the threat and the scourge of civil wars and external aggression and unburdened of the great tragedy of millions forced to become refugees.

We do not believe that this Nobel Peace Prize is intended as a commendation for matters that have happened and passed.

We hear the voices which say that it is an appeal from all those, throughout the universe, who sought an end to the system of apartheid.

We understand their call, that we devote what remains of our lives to the use of our country's unique and painful experience to demonstrate, in practice, that the normal condition for human existence is democracy, justice, peace, non-racism, non-sexism, prosperity for everybody, a healthy environment and equality and solidarity among the peoples.

Moved by that appeal and inspired by the eminence you have thrust upon us, we undertake that we too will do what we can to contribute to the renewal of our world so that none should, in future, be described as the "wretched of the earth".

[edit] Victory speech (1994)

Announcing the ANC election victory, Johannesburg (2 May 1994)

My fellow South Africans — the people of South Africa:

This is indeed a joyous night. Although not yet final, we have received the provisional results of the election, and are delighted by the overwhelming support for the African National Congress.

To all those in the African National Congress and the democratic movement who worked so hard these last few days and through these many decades, I thank you and honour you. To the people of South Africa and the world who are watching: this a joyous night for the human spirit. This is your victory too. You helped end apartheid, you stood with us through the transition.

I watched, along with all of you, as the tens of thousands of our people stood patiently in long queues for many hours. Some sleeping on the open ground overnight waiting to cast this momentous vote.

This is one of the most important moments in the life of our country. I stand here before you filled with deep pride and joy: — pride in the ordinary, humble people of this country. You have shown such a calm, patient determination to reclaim this country as your own, - and joy that we can loudly proclaim from the rooftops — free at last!

Tomorrow, the entire ANC leadership and I will be back at our desks. We are rolling up our sleeves to begin tackling the problems our country faces. We ask you all to join us — go back to your jobs in the morning. Let's get South Africa working.

这里放不下,自己去找吧。

介绍曼德拉的生平事迹

早年生活

曼德拉是家族中唯一上过学的成员,小学启蒙教师给他取名

1937年的纳尔逊·曼德拉

纳尔逊。当曼德拉9岁的时候,他父亲死于肺结核。部落中的摄政王成为他的监护人,曼德拉于是就到离开父亲王宫不远的韦斯里安教会学校上课。按照腾布的习惯,他从16岁开始受业。曼德拉用了2年完成了惯常需要3年完成的初中学业。因为父亲的地位,他被指定为王朝的继任者。[2]

曼德拉在福特哈尔大学上学时,遇到了一生的好朋友、好同事——奥利弗·坦波。并在曼德拉大学生涯第一年中,他卷入了学生会抵制学校不合理政策的活动。他被勒令退学,并被告知除非接受学生会的选举结果,不然不能再回到学校。此后,曼德拉在监狱时才获得了伦敦大学的函授法学学位。

离开福特哈尔不久,曼德拉就安排和腾布家族的继承人一起结婚。但他选择逃避,离开了家乡来到了约翰内斯堡。刚到约翰内斯堡后,他就在煤矿坑找到了一份保安的工作。不过,当矿场老板发现曼德拉是逃亡的贵族后就迅速解雇了他。曼德拉随后在约翰内斯堡的一家律师事务所找到了文书工作,在此期间于南非大学通过函授修完了他的学士学位,此后,他开始在约翰内斯堡金山大学学习法律。曼德拉在金山大学读书期间住在位于约翰内斯堡北部的亚力克山德拉镇,并遇到了他此后反种族隔离时的同事——乔斯洛沃、哈里斯沃兹以及鲁斯福斯特。[3]

投身政治

1950年曼德拉与两名“叛国罪”同犯聊天。[2]

1944年参加主张非暴力斗争的南非非洲人国民大会(简称非国大)。

1948年,由布尔人当政的南非国民党取得了大选的胜利,由于这个党派支持种族隔离政策,曼德拉开始积极地投身政治,他在1952年的非国大反抗运动和1955年的人民议会中起到了领导作用,这些运动的基础就是自由宪章。与此同时,曼德拉和他的律师所同事奥利弗坦波开设了曼德拉坦波律师事务所,为请不起辩护律师的黑人提供免费或者低价的法律咨询服务,并先后任非国大执委、德兰士瓦省主席、全国副主席。1952年年底,他成功地组织并领导了“蔑视不公正法令运动”,赢得了全体黑人的尊敬。为此,南非当局曾两次发出不准他参加公众集会的禁令。

成为南非非国大青年联盟主席[2]

1958年9月2日,亨德里克·弗伦施·维沃尔德出任南非首相,其于执政期间出台了“班图斯坦法”,此举将1000余万非洲黑人仅仅限制在12.5%的南非国土中,并且同时在国内实行强化通行证制度,此举激化了南非黑人与白人的冲突,最终导致了沙佩韦尔惨案的发生。

1960年3月21日,南非军警在沙佩维尔向正在进行示威游行的五千名抗议示威者射击,惨案共导致了69人死亡,180人受伤,曼德拉也因此被捕入狱,但是最后通过在法庭辩论上为自己的辩护,而无罪释放。

1961年,他领导罢工运动,抗议和抵制白人种族主义者成立的“南非共和国”;此后转入地下武装斗争。曼德拉创建了非国大军事组织:“民族之矛”(Umkhonto we Sizwe)并任总司令。他曾秘密赴国外访问,并出席在亚的斯亚贝巴召开的反非自由运动大会,呼吁对南非实行经济制裁。[4]

被捕入狱

1962年8月,在美国中情局的帮助之下,曼德拉被南非种族隔离政权逮捕入狱,当时政府以“煽动”罪和“非法越境”罪判处曼德拉5年监禁,自此,曼德拉开始了他长达27年的“监狱生涯”。

被判处无期徒刑,离开法院时,拳头伸出囚车[2]

1962年10月15日,曼德拉被关押到比勒陀利亚地方监狱。在那里,曼德拉为了争取自身利益而遭到单独关押,关押时间一日长达23小时,每天只有上午和下午各半个小时的活动时间。在单独关押室中没有自然光线,没有任何书写物品,一切与外部隔绝。最终,曼德拉放弃了自己的一些权利,他希望能够与他人交流。

1964年6月,南非政府以“企图以暴力推翻政府”罪判处正在服刑的曼德拉终生监禁,当年他被转移到罗本岛上。罗本岛是1960年代中期到1991年那段时间内南非最大的秘密监狱,岛上曾关押过大批黑人政治犯。曼德拉在罗本岛的狱室只有4.5平方米,在这里他受到了非人的待遇。罗本岛上的囚犯被狱卒们逼迫到岛上的采石场做苦工。在岛上,曼德拉希望监狱方面同意他在监狱的院子里开辟出一块菜园,监狱方面多次拒绝,但是最终还是同意了曼德拉的要求。在岛上,曼德拉依然坚持着身体锻炼,例如在牢房中跑步,做俯卧撑进行锻炼。

1982年,曼德拉离开了罗本岛,他被转移到波尔斯摩尔监狱。自此,曼德拉结束了自己在罗本岛长达18年的囚禁。他在这里也开辟了一片菜园,并且种了将近900株植物。

1984年5月,官方允许曼德拉与其夫人进行“接触性”探视,当他的夫人听到这个消息时认为曼德拉可能生病了,当两人进行探视时,他们互相拥抱在一起,曼德拉说:“这么多年以来,这是我第一次吻抱我的妻子。算起来,我已经有21年没有碰过我夫人的手了。”[5]

重获自由

南非在实行种族隔离后期那段时间内,受到了国际社会的严厉制裁,这一切最终导致南非于1990年解除隔离,实现民族和解。

1990年2月10日,南非总统德克勒克宣布无条件释放曼德拉,1990年2月11日,在监狱中度过了27年的曼德拉终于重获自由。出狱当日,他前往了索韦托足球场,向12万人发表了他著名的“出狱演说”。[5]1990年3月,他被非国大全国执委任命为副主席、代行主席职务。

担任总统

纳尔逊·罗利赫拉赫拉·曼德拉(28张)

1994年4月,非国大在南非首次不分种族的大选中获胜。5月9日,在南非首次的多种族大选结果揭晓后,曼德拉成为南非历史上首位黑人总统。

1997年12月,曼德拉辞去非国大主席一职,并表示不再参加1999年6月的总统竞选。[5]

1999年3月12日,被欧洲著名学府莱顿大学授予荣誉博士学位。5月,曼德拉总统应邀访华,他是首位访华的南非国家元首。6月正式去职。

生病入院

曼德拉摄于2012年5月的资料照片[6]

2013年3月南非前总统纳尔逊·曼德拉由于肺部感染复发,于27日午夜再次入院接受治疗,这是自2012年12月以来,曼德拉第三次入院,也是他在3月份的第二次住院。在西方的复活节到来的时刻,南非人民纷纷前往教堂,为曼德拉祈福。[7]

2013年6月8日,曼德拉因肺部感染复发被送往比勒陀利亚医院治疗。年6月12日,曼德拉孙子曼迪拉发布声明称曼德拉的病情已出现好转,曼迪拉向南非和全世界为曼德拉送上祝福的人表示感谢。[8]6月23日,曼德拉病情开始恶化。医疗小组汇报说,在过去24小时里,曼德拉的病情“危急”。[6]

2013年9月1日,南非总统府称,前总统曼德拉已经离开医院,回到位于约翰内斯堡的家中继续接受重症监护,但其病情仍然非常严重,健康状况有时也不稳定。[9]

2013年12月6日(南非时间5日),曼德拉在约翰内斯堡住所去世,享年95岁。南非为曼德拉举行国葬,全国降半旗。

相关阅读

热门文章

最新文章

  • 流行美,流行美的化妆品怎么样

  • 流行美的化妆品怎么样 流行美很差劲啊,主要做发饰等,分店虽多,但素质较差,亲身经历过,而且类似有点骗人,价格超级贵,都是200以上,不高端,用过,上当了不说,主要是连锁
  • 微博女王,姚晨为什么是微博女王?

  • 姚晨为什么是微博女王? 2009年8月新浪微博上线,开始内测,从此在“博客”之外,又派生出“微博”这一新生事物。姚晨是较早开微博的用户之一,人称“围脖女王”。不到2个月的时
  • 三农养殖网,三农养殖网下载方法

  • 国家支持“三农”养殖业有哪些? 目前国家对畜牧业主要有以下优待政策:1、能繁母猪饲养补贴政策。2、能繁母猪保险政策。3、生猪标准化规模养殖扶持政策。4、生猪良种繁育体系
  • 微博名字,微博取个什么名称好啊

  • 微博取个什么名称好啊 一、微博取名最好结合自己的实际情况 如果你是名人,要用自己真实的姓名来进行宣传,那当然最简单啦,直接用自己的名字就可以。 但如果普通人的话,用自
  • 美容床,美容床 的实际尺寸是多少?

  • 美容床 的实际尺寸是多少? 轩艺沙发所产的美容床的标准尺寸是1900*700*650mm,但是有些中小型的美容院因为空间的局限性或是有所特定针对人群的特性他们美容床尺寸相对要小一些一般